Airborne diseases are infections that can spread through the air from one person to another. They are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can travel in droplets or aerosols. Some of the most common airborne diseases are influenza, tuberculosis, measles, chickenpox, and COVID-19. In this article, you will learn more about the history, transmission, prevention, and treatment of these diseases.
A Brief History of Airborne Diseases
The history of airborne diseases is intertwined with the history of human civilization. Since ancient times, people have been exposed to various pathogens that can cause respiratory infections. Some of the earliest recorded outbreaks of airborne diseases include the plague of Athens in 430 BC, the Antonine plague in 165 AD, and the Black Death in 1347-1351. These pandemics killed millions of people and changed the course of history.
However, it was not until the 19th century that scientists began to understand the nature and causes of airborne diseases. In 1865, Louis Pasteur proposed the germ theory of disease, which stated that microorganisms are responsible for many infectious diseases. In 1882, Robert Koch discovered the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, one of the most deadly airborne diseases. In 1892, Dmitri Ivanovsky discovered the first virus, which causes tobacco mosaic disease. In 1918-1919, the Spanish flu pandemic killed more than 50 million people worldwide and demonstrated the power and unpredictability of viral infections.
Since then, many advances have been made in the fields of microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and public health to combat airborne diseases. Vaccines, antibiotics, antivirals, and other drugs have been developed to prevent and treat many infections. Surveillance systems, diagnostic tests, isolation measures, and contact tracing have been implemented to monitor and control outbreaks. Education campaigns, hygiene practices, and personal protective equipment have been promoted to raise awareness and reduce transmission.
How Airborne Diseases Are Transmitted
Airborne diseases are transmitted when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes near a susceptible person. The expelled droplets or aerosols can contain millions of microorganisms that can enter the respiratory tract of the exposed person and cause infection. The size and number of the droplets or aerosols depend on various factors such as the type of pathogen, the intensity of the respiratory activity, the humidity and temperature of the environment, and the distance between the source and the recipient.
There are two main modes of transmission for airborne diseases: droplet transmission and airborne transmission. Droplet transmission occurs when large droplets (>5 micrometers) land on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, or mouth of a nearby person (within 1 meter). This mode of transmission is common for bacterial infections such as streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), meningococcal meningitis (meningitis), and pertussis (whooping cough).
Airborne transmission occurs when small droplets (<5 micrometers) or droplet nuclei (residue from evaporated droplets) remain suspended in the air for long periods or travel over long distances (more than 1 meter). This mode of transmission is common for viral infections such as influenza (flu), measles (rubeola), varicella (chickenpox), and COVID-19.
How to Prevent and Treat Airborne Diseases
The prevention and treatment of airborne diseases depend on several factors such as the type and severity of the infection, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines and drugs, the risk factors and comorbidities of the individual, and the public health measures in place.
The best way to prevent airborne diseases is to avoid exposure to infected people or contaminated environments. This can be achieved by practicing social distancing (staying at least 1 meter away from others), wearing a mask or a respirator (covering your nose and mouth with a cloth or a medical device), washing your hands frequently (with soap and water or alcohol-based sanitizer), and disinfecting surfaces and objects (with bleach or other chemicals).
Another way to prevent airborne diseases is to boost your immune system by getting vaccinated against certain infections. Vaccines are biological products that stimulate your body’s natural defenses against specific pathogens. They can protect you from getting sick or reduce the severity of your symptoms if you get infected. Some of the vaccines available for airborne diseases include influenza vaccine (flu shot), measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), varicella vaccine (chickenpox shot), pneumococcal vaccine (pneumonia shot), and COVID-19 vaccine.
The treatment of airborne diseases varies depending on the type and stage of the infection. Some infections can be cured with antibiotics (drugs that kill bacteria) or antivirals (drugs that inhibit viruses). However, some infections are resistant to drugs or have no specific treatment. In these cases, the treatment is mainly supportive and symptomatic, which means that it aims to relieve the discomfort and complications of the infection. This can include taking painkillers (drugs that reduce pain), antipyretics (drugs that lower fever), anti-inflammatories (drugs that reduce inflammation), antihistamines (drugs that reduce allergic reactions), decongestants (drugs that clear nasal passages), expectorants (drugs that loosen mucus), and cough suppressants (drugs that reduce coughing).
Common Questions About Airborne Diseases
Here are some of the common questions that people have about airborne diseases:
- How long can airborne diseases survive in the air?
The survival time of airborne diseases in the air depends on several factors such as the type of pathogen, the size of the droplet or aerosol, the humidity and temperature of the environment, and the exposure to sunlight or other disinfectants. Generally, bacteria can survive longer than viruses, larger droplets can survive longer than smaller ones, and humid and cold environments can prolong the survival time. For example, tuberculosis bacteria can survive for up to 6 hours in the air, influenza viruses can survive for up to 24 hours in the air, and COVID-19 viruses can survive for up to 3 hours in the air.
- How can I tell if I have an airborne disease?
The symptoms of airborne diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. However, some of the common signs and symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, headache, fatigue, muscle ache, chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, rash, and swollen glands. If you have any of these symptoms, you should consult your doctor or health care provider as soon as possible. They can diagnose your condition by asking you about your medical history, performing a physical examination, and ordering some tests such as blood tests, throat swabs, chest X-rays, or PCR tests.
- How can I protect myself and others from airborne diseases?
You can protect yourself and others from airborne diseases by following some simple steps such as:
- Getting vaccinated against certain infections
- Practicing social distancing
- Wearing a mask or a respirator
- Washing your hands frequently
- Disinfecting surfaces and objects
- Covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze
- Avoiding touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
- Staying home if you are sick
- Seeking medical attention if you have symptoms
Airborne diseases are infections that can spread through the air from one person to another. They are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can travel in droplets or aerosols. Some of the most common airborne diseases are influenza, tuberculosis, measles, chickenpox, and COVID-19.
In this article, you learned more about the history, transmission, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. You also learned how to protect yourself and others from these infections by following some simple steps.
We hope you found this article informative and helpful. If you have any questions or comments about airborne diseases, please leave them below. We would love to hear from you. Thank you for reading!